Sega Dreamcast emulators

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Sega Dreamcast
Developer Sega
Type Home video game console
Generation Sixth generation
Release date 1998
Discontinued 2001
Predecessor Sega Saturn
For other emulators that run on Dreamcast hardware, see Emulators on Dreamcast.

The Sega Dreamcast is a sixth-generation console released by Sega on November 27, 1998, in Japan and later on September 9, 1999, in NA. It retailed for $199.99.

To go more in-depth, it had a Hitachi SH-4 RISC CPU at 200 MHz with 16 MBs of RAM and 8 MBs of VRAM. Additionally, on the graphic side, the console came with a PowerVR2 GPU at 100 MHz, which theoretically was capable of pushing 3 million polygons/second on-screen. The audio system had 2 MBs of audio RAM, which complemented a powerful 67 MHz Yamaha AICA sound processor with a 32-bit ARM7 RISC CPU core. The audio chip could generate 64 voices with PCM or ADPCM codec and provided ten times the performance of the Saturn's sound system.

Also, Microsoft collaborated on the Dreamcast's development, and this partnership would continue later with the Xbox. What came out of this was the possibility for games to be developed for an optimized version of Windows CE (with DirectX) on each disc. However, Windows CE wasn't mandatory to use, and most developers opted for SEGA's development tools instead out of convenience. Even in major emulators, this aspect isn't implemented well.

In the same year of Dreamcast's launch, SEGA released the NAOMI, an arcade system board with similar components to the Dreamcast. Sammy's Atomiswave arcade board was also based on the Dreamcast and NAOMI.

A few years later, a successor of the NAOMI board was released in 2001, called NAOMI 2. It was a bit more powerful than its predecessor, having one more Hitachi SH-4 CPU and another PowerVR 2 GPU.

Only 13 titles were released for this board.


Name Platform(s) Latest Version Retro
DC to
DC to
Hikaru Gaelco
Atomiswave System
FLOSS Active Recommended
PC / x86
Flycast Windows Linux macOS CI Builds
libretro core[N 1]
Flycast Dojo fork
~[N 2] ~[N 3] ~[N 4]
redream Windows Linux macOS Dev Builds
1.5.0[N 5]
~[N 6] ~[N 3]
DEmul Windows 0.7 Build 280418 ~[N 3] ~[N 7] ~
reicast Windows Linux r20.04
nullDC Windows 1.0.4 r150 ~[N 8]
washDC Windows Linux git
lxdream-nitro Linux macOS git
Chankast Windows 0.25
Lxdream Linux macOS 0.9.1
Makaron Windows T12/5 ~
MAME Windows Linux macOS
git artifacts[N 9]
libretro core
~[N 10] ~[N 11] ~[N 11] ~[N 11] ~[N 11] ~[N 11] [N 11]
Mobile / ARM
Flycast Android iOS CI Builds
libretro core[N 1]
~[N 2] ~[N 3] ~[N 4]
redream Android Linux ARM 1.1.98 (Google Play)
1.5.0 (Raspberry Pi)
~[N 6]
reicast Android Dragonbox Pyra r20.04 (Google Play)
Pyra Build
Flycast Switch Vita
Xbox One Xbox Series X/S
CI Builds
libretro core[N 1]
~[N 2] ~[N 3] ~[N 4]
nullDC PSP PSP git 1.2.1 ? ~
nulldc-360 Xbox 360 git ? ~ ~
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 This build using upstream repo for libretro from now on.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Exclusive to libretro core. RA support in the standalone application issue page.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 These Dreamcast emulators can leverage a secondary VMU screen while a corresponding Dreamcast game is running, but they cannot play standalone VMU minigames. If that's what you're after, then you should probably see this page for dedicated VMU emulators.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Most of the NAOMI and NAOMI 2 titles including GD-ROM games work with Flycast, but most of the NAOMI Multiboard titles boot with a multiboard error message. Recommended to use DEmul emulator for this system.
  5. CI/Dev builds are a better choice for almost all users; the stable version should only be used if you have a specific need for them.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Supports Dreamcast Keyboard emulation but no support for Dreamcast Mouse emulation.
  7. 'arcade_compat.txt' file inside DEmul's release archives do not have any Cave CV1000 emulation compat list, so its games' status is unknown.
  8. nullDC was the first independent, open-source Sega Dreamcast emulator to attempt emulation of the NAOMI arcade board. Its compatibility with NAOMI, NAOMI 2 and NAOMI Multiboard is unknown.
  9. CI-Windows CI-Linux CI-Macos
  10. VMU emulation possible but there is no VMU<->Dreamcast communication emulation at the moment.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 MAME 0.255 version compatibility status: hikaru gaelco 3d atomiswave System SP NAOMI cave 1000


Can run a lot of games at great speed on a mid-end PC, and it's open-source. However, it's no longer being developed, and the more recent forks have improved upon it.
Eventually, nullDC's author forked his own project into reicast, with the main objective to widen platform availability to smartphones and tablets. While wider availability is generally a good thing, this resulted in cutting accuracy corners from the nullDC codebase to achieve the speed goals necessary to run on these platforms. Advancements in mobile hardware should have led to the removal of such "hacks"; however, lack of developer resources and interest led to long delays in Reicast development, and the codebase remained virtually untouched for years before the RetroArch team began working with it as part of a "Reicast core", later named Flycast.
Flycast (NAOMI and variants compatibility) (servers) (servers#2) (servers#3)
Fork of reicast available as a standalone emulator and as a libretro core. Libretro collaborators, primarily flyinghead, dramatically improved Reicast in areas such as graphics, input, system clock, and Dreamcast VMU. Atomiswave and NAOMI SH-4-based arcade systems have also been added to great fanfare[N 1], along with support for MAME's popular CHD format. Even full MMU support, which is needed to run Windows CE-based games such as Armada, Half-Life, and SEGA Rally Championship 2. It has recently been tackled through an experimental branch (anyone following Dreamcast emulation over the years understands what a tough nut this is to crack). Aside from some audio stuttering issues in games such as "Looney Toons Space Race" and "Resident Evil: Code Veronica", this is a highly compatible and accurate emulator. Most Windows CE games run at low performance.
Flycast Dojo
Fork of Flycast with a focus on netplay features and replay. Also, available on the Fightcade matchmaking service.
Multi-platform and easy to use, but it's closed-source. Compatible with +96% of the Dreamcast library (as of Q1 2022). It has a good user interface, is easy to set up, and can run without a BIOS. Runs on low-end machines provided that they support OpenGL 3.1. There's a payware premium version that provides high-definition rendering and additional slots for save states. Emulator work unstable on AMD GPUs with actual driver version.
DEmul (NAOMI and variants compatibility)
Windows-only and closed-source. Used to be the go-to emulator. It supports Windows CE games, but they generally run worse than standard Dreamcast titles. It's also more resource-intensive than other emulators. As of 2022, you´re better off with Flycast or redream for Dreamcast emulation as they are multi-platform and have higher compatibility with Windows CE games. Having said that, DEmul is still highly recommended for SEGA NAOMI and variants.
A closed-source Dreamcast emulator that was once noteworthy for being one of the few that could properly play Windows CE games. It has since been superseded by newer emulators.

Emulation issues[edit]

Developer interest in Dreamcast emulation was previously hindered by the availability of the closed-source but "good enough" Chankast, and by less interest in the console relative to other 6th generation consoles. For the emulators that are either mature or maturing, a very large percentage of games work well, but some games still have problems and glitches.

VMU emulators[edit]

While some Dreamcast emulators can leverage the screen of the VMU while the game is running, none of them allow you to play the minigames developed for it. See the main page on VMU emulation here.



Dreamcast logo.png
Consoles: SG-1000Master SystemGenesis / Mega DriveCD32XPicoSaturnDreamcast
Handhelds: Game GearVMU / VMS
Arcade: System seriesModel 1Model 2Model 3Naomi