POS (Pong Consoles) CPUs and Other Chips
Emulation of common chips is a big part of emulating consoles and computers, this page covers all these well known parts
SOC's (System On A Chip)
|Model||Manufacturer||MAME support||Emulators / Description|
|Elan||Unknown||Decent||Designed and Manufactured by an unknown Chinese or Taiwanese company, Elan is one of the older SOC still used in Chinese products, dating back to around the late 90s to early 2000s. Elan is usually used in bootleg or original plug and play games / systems.|
|VT01||V.R. Technology||None||NOAC (NES-On-A-Chip) with the ability to drive an STN display directly using a modified palette.|
|VT02||V.R. Technology||None||NOAC (NES-On-A-Chip) with major enhancements compared to regular NES. What's new|
|VT09||V.R. Technology||None||NOAC (NES-On-A-Chip), a low-cost replacement for VT03.|
|VT168||V.R. Technology||None||A MOS6502-based SoC inspired by the NES but unlike NOACs, major differences made it no longer fully backward compatible with NES.|
|VT268||V.R. Technology||None||Enhanced VT168.|
CPU's & MP's (Microprocessors)
|Model||Manufacturer||Year||MAME support||Emulators / Description|
|80286||Intel||1982||None||The 80286 CPU was released on February 1, 1982, with a clock speed of 4 MHz, but it soon changed to 6 MHz. After that, it had a max clock speed of 25 MHz.|
|386DX||Intel||1985||None||The 386DX CPU was released in October of 1985 with a clock speed of 12 MHz. The max clock speed was 33 MHz. The 386DX was supposed to be introduced|
at 16 MHz, but they had to settle for 12 MHz for technical reasons
|386SX||Intel||1988||None||The 386SX was released in 1988 and was intended for lower-cost home PCs. It has the same clock speeds as the 386DX.|
|4004||Intel||1971||None||The first commercially produced microprocessor.|
|68010||Motorola||1982||None||Pin-compatible with the 68000, but not 100% software compatible.|
|68020||Motorola||1984||None||32-bit internal and external data and address buses, and natively 32-bit ALU.|
|68030||Motorola||1987||None||68020 with a memory management unit (MMU) and instruction and data caches of 256 bytes each.|
|68040||Motorola||1990||None||First 680x0 family member with an on-chip Floating-Point Unit (FPU).|
|68060||Motorola||1994||None||Last product in 680x0 family.|
|80286||Intel||1982||None||First x86 processor with memory management and wide protection abilities.|
|80386||Intel||1985||None||First 32-bit x86 processor.|
|80386DX||Intel||1988||None||The same as original 80386, just renamed.|
|80386SL||Intel||1990||None||Power efficient version of 80386 for laptops.|
|80386SX||Intel||1988||None||Cut down version of 80386 with 16-bit data bus.|
|8086||Intel||1978||None||The 8086 CPU was released on June 8, 1978, at 5 MHz and had a max clock speed of 10 MHz. It was also the beginning of the x86 architecture.|
|8086-1||Intel||1978||None||After the original launch, Intel released the 8086-1, which had a clock speed of 10MHz.|
|8086-2||Intel||1980||None||In May/June of 1980, the 8086-2 at 8 MHz was released.|
|8086-4||Intel||1978||None||The 8086-4 CPU came after the 8086-2 CPU, completely skipping 8086-3; it was clocked at 4 MHz.|
|8088||Intel||1979||None||The 8088 CPU was released on July 1, 1979, and had a default clock speed of 4.77 MHz and a max clock speed of 10 MHz.|
|i386SL||Intel||1990||None||The i386SL was released for use in portable computers and had a clock speed of 20 MHz. Its max clock speed is 25 MHz.|
|i486||Intel||1989||None||First x86 chip to include more than one million transistors.|
|i486DX||Intel||1989||None||The original i486 without clock multiplier.|
|i486GX||Intel||1994||None||Embedded ultra-low-power CPU with all features of the i486SX and 16-bit external data bus.|
|i486SL||Intel||1992||None||Low-power version of the i486DX, for laptops.|
|i486SX||Intel||1991||None||i486 without FPU.|
|I8086||Intel||1980||None||The last 8086 CPU released was the I8086 in May/June of 1980.|
|Itanium 2||Intel/HP||2002||None||IA-64 instruction set simulator  , executable toolkit |
|PIC||General Instrument \ Microchip||1975||NA|
Pong Consoles (Pong In A Chip)
Popular for a few years during the 70s, they came in many kinds of cases, controls, and under many brands but all used a POC (Pong In A Chip) which are chips that contain all and only essential components to run the game of Pong and their variations. And because of this, these chips are emulated rather than individual systems.
|Model||Year||Manufacturer||Games/Modes||MAME support||Other support||Latest version||ROMs||Description|
|3659-1C/C2566||1975||Atari||Pong (Two Player)||None||Pong Consoles Simulation||git|
|3659-3||1975||Atari||Pong (Four Player)||None||None|
|AY-3-8500||1976||General Instruments||Pong (Four Modes)
Light Gun (Two Modes)
|None||WinArcadia / AmiArcadia and Pong Consoles Simulation||29.5 git|
|AY-3-8510||1978||General Instruments||NA||None||WinArcadia / AmiArcadia||29.5||Improved version of the AY-3-8500, games are now in colour|
|AY-3-8512||1978||General Instruments||NA||None||WinArcadia / AmiArcadia||29.5||Improved version of the AY-3-8510.|
|AY-3-8550||1976||General Instruments||NA||None||WinArcadia / AmiArcadia||29.5||Improved AY-3-8500 with horizontal player motion|
|AY-3-8600||1977||General Instruments||Pong (Eight Modes)||None||WinArcadia / AmiArcadia||29.5|
|AY-3-8601 (Square Off)||1976||General Instruments||Combat Squares
Jungle Games (Two Modes)
|None||There is a possibly that this chip was never released|
|AY-3-8602 (Volleyball Plus)||1976||General Instruments||Volleyball
|None||There is a possibly that this chip was never released|
|AY-3-8603 (Roadrace)||1976||General Instruments||Racing (Two Modes)||None|
|AY-3-8604 (Barricade)||NA||General Instruments||Snakes||None||This game is made for two players|
|AY-3-8605||1977||General Instruments||Submarine (Three Modes)||None|
|AY-3-8606||1977||General Instruments||Breakout (Ten Modes)||None|
|AY-3-8607||1977||General Instruments||Light Gun||None|
|AY-3-8610||1977||General Instruments||Pong (Eight Modes)
|None||Improved version of the AY-3-8600|
|AY-3-8700||1976||General Instruments||Tank Battle||None|
|AY-3-8710||1976||General Instruments||Tank Battle||None|
|AY-3-8760||1976||General Instruments||Motor Cycle (Four Modes)||None|
|AY-3-8765||1976||General Instruments||Motor Cycle (Four Modes)||None|
|AY-3-8800||1976||General Instruments||Black Jack
|AY-3-8888 (Vegas)||1976||General Instruments||Black Jack
LEM (Lunar Landing Module)
|C010073-01/C2607||1976||Atari||Pong (Ten Modes)||None|
|C010073-3||1976||Atari||Pong (Four Modes)||None||Pong Consoles Simulation||git|
|C010765||1977||Atari||Pong (Thirty-Two Modes)||None|
|C011500-11 / C011512-05||1977||Atari||Pinball/Breakout (Seven Modes)||None|
|None||There is a possibly that this chip was never released|
|Pong (Two Modes)
Racing (Two Modes)
|K145ИК17||1980||Angstrem||Unknown||None||A Russian POC, its likely a clone of the AY-3-8500 series. a lot of the IC's made in during the Soviet Union were clones.|
|M-588135||1982||Motorola||None||A clone of the Mitsubishi M-588135|
|M58816P||1977||Mitsubishi / Nintendo||None||Pong Consoles Simulation||git||M58816P is a custom chip made by Mitsubishi Electronics for Nintendo, it was used in there Color TV-Game line of console.
|MM-57100N||1976||National Semiconductor||Pong (Three Modes)||None||This is the NTSC version of the chip.|
|MM-57105N||1976||National Semiconductor||Pong (Three Modes)||None||This is the PAL version of the chip.|
|MM-57106N||1977||National Semiconductor||Unknown||None||This is the NTSC version of the chip. There is a possibly that this chip was never released.|
|MM-57186N||1978||National Semiconductor||Unknown||None||This is the PAL version of the chip. There is a possibly that this chip was never released.|
|MPS 7600-001||1977||Mostek||Pong (Four Modes)||None||This is the NTSC version of the chip. the games are made for two or four players.|
|MPS 7601-001||1977||Mostek||Pong (Four Modes)||None||This is the PAL version of the chip. the games are made for two or four players.|
|SN-76410N||1976||Texas Instruments||Pong (Six Modes)||None|
|TMS-1955||1976||Texas Instruments||Pong (Four Modes)||None|
|TMS-1965||1976||Texas Instruments||Pong (Six Modes)||None|
The Signetics 2650 was an 8-bit microprocessor at 1.2 MHz introduced in July 1975.
|PIPBUG- and BINBUG-based||Signetics||Computer||1977|
|Central Data 2650||Computer||1977|
|TV Games Computer||Elektor||Computer||1979|
(2650 Minimal Computer)
- This part is about software that emulate x86 CPUs, and for some also other PC parts.
The PC platform is an open architecture system that IBM initially designed in 1980. IBM's PC 5150 is the progenitor (though in no way representative of iterative designs like the desktops and laptops you may be familiar with today).
The history of the PC is comprehensive, but a good summary is that almost every component of the 5150 was off-the-shelf. IBM hoped that if clones popped up, they could sue them for using the firmware in the BIOS, which they had copyright over as established by a lawsuit between Apple and Franklin. However, Phoenix designed a clean-room replacement firmware based solely on IBM's own public documentation. As a result, IBM never challenged clones that used it and promptly lost control over the platform. Intel would later take up the next major iteration in 1995, called ATX.
Sometime in the 90s, a speedup was found in PC emulation that could run software near-natively; this became the basis for hypervisors, which are different from conventional emulators listed here since they require the host architecture to be at the very least x86-compatible.
|Name||Platform(s)||Latest version||8086*¹||80286||386*²||486*³||Pentium*⁴||Pentium II*⁵||Celeron*⁶||Pentium III*⁷||Pentium 4*⁸||Retro
|PC / x86|
0.80.1 (DOSBox Staging)
0.9.7 (DOSBox Pure)
|~[N 2]||✓||✓||~[N 2]||~[N 2]||~[N 2]||✗||~[N 3]||✗||✗||✓||~[N 4]||~|
|MAME||git artifacts[N 5]
|Bochs||2.7||✗||✗||✓||✓||✓[N 7]||✓[N 7]||✓[N 7]||✓[N 7]||✓[N 7]||✗||✓||✗||✗|
|Mobile / ARM|
|DOSBox Pure||libretro core||✓||✓||✓||✓||✓||✓||✗||✓||✗||✗||✓||✓||✓|
|DOSBox Pure||UWP libretro core||✓||✓||✓||✓||✓||✓||✗||✓||✗||✗||✓||✓||✓|
*¹8086 emulation includes the 8088 CPU. *²386 emulation includes the SX and SL. *³486 emulation includes variants. *⁴Pentium emulation includes variants *⁵Pentium II emulation includes variants. *⁶Celeron emulation includes variants. *⁷Pentium III emulation includes variants. *⁸Pentium 4 emulation includes variants.
- Only available for PCBox fork. For more information about Pentium III emulation; 86Box - Why Not Pentium III?
- Available exclusively on DOSBox-X, DOSBox Staging and DOSBox Pure.
- Available exclusively on DOSBox-X and DOSBox Pure.
- DOSBox-X, DOSBox Staging, DOSBox Pure and DOSBox-core forks are still active.
- CI-Windows CI-Linux CI-Macos
- Supports the Conroe model.
- If Bochs is compiled with cpu level 5 or higher the CPUID opcode is supported and it can return some information about the cpu model and it's features. When using a pre-defined CPU model in Bochs the features reported by CPUID are set up according to the model's specification. The amount of choices depends on the CPU features enabled at compile time.
These emulators provides an excellent compatibility and hardware support with MS-DOS, Windows 3.11, Windows ME/98/95 and even XP/Vista that is beyond what "DOSBox forks" can offer but unlike "DOSBox forks" these emulators usually requires modest to top-notch single thread performance of CPUs (specially for Pentium II and higher emulation). As of June 14, 2021, PCem's original developer, Sarah Walker, has stopped working on the project. It has now been taken over on December 18, 2021, by a new maintainer, Michael Manley. 86Box is a fork of PCem, while PCBox and VARCem are forks of 86Box, with PCBox being the most fully-featured of the four.
|DOSBox-X/DOSBox Pure/DOSBox Staging:
In basic CPU's, all generations in between are supported (8086/8088, 80186/80188, 80286, 80386sx/dx, 80486, Pentium, Pentium Pro and Pentium II. All without FPU emulated, other than software FPU emulation support using drivers). It can run many IBM PC XT games, and also various 286(*) up to Pentium II games. Support for ATAPI CD-ROM (using VIDE-CDD.SYS, OAKCDROM.SYS or compatible ATAPI drivers) also works. Many graphics cards and sound cards can be used (MIDI using a Soundfont renderer inside UniPCemu (recordable by UniPCemu's sound recording functionality) or passthrough(passthrough on Windows only, which is not recordable by the emulator's own recording functionality)), from PC speaker up to Sound Blaster 2.0 and from IBM Monochrome Display Adapter up to ET4000/W32 SVGA(up to 16M colors (in True Color mode) using it's SC15025 DAC)! EMS is available using the Lo-tech 2MB EMS board on the XT and various EMM emulation software(e.g. JEMM386, EMM386) on IBM AT and up. For more information about UniPCemu use this link.
It's an open source emulator written in rust that aims to be cycle accurate for IBM PCs. Compared to other (also great) PC emulators like PCem/86box/DOSbox forks etc, MartyPC focuses on ultra accurate CGA and DMA emulation. It requires pixel perfect and cycle accurate CGA emulation as well as emulation of CRT properties like overscan. Developer "Glorious_Cow" said;
Of course my next target is the 286, I think it would be interesting to try to make a cycle-accurate 286. The biggest challenge is the microcode for 286 hasn't been decoded yet, but there is a high resolution 286 die shot I'd love to get my hands on... My hope is that the 286 is a more 'regular' chip than the 8088. The 8088 turned out to have a lot of odd, poorly documented behavior. I guess we'll find out. 386 is sort of a long-term goal. I'll get there when I get there, but it might take another year for 286 I estimate before I tackle it. Now that I've accomplished Area 5150 I don't really have a "goal target" in mind other than running DOOM :) My 386 will not be slavishly cycle-accurate, after all, there were many variations of the 386 and clones, so which one would be accurate to? Besides the fact it's hard to write a cycle-accurate CPU at 40MHz... At that point I think MartyPC will be done chasing the hardware, I have no interest in following the CPU generations up into the Pentiums - that's probably best left to 86box - and I think I will probably turn my eye just to seeing what kind of interesting debugging features I can add. Save states and rewinding, an inline assembler or scripting language would be cool. With most end-users probably best served by using 86box, I figure my best niche going forward is being a 'retro-developer's' emulator of choice, so I am motivated to add any debug features people might request.
The emulation of various CPU types seen here regarding MAME are all over the place in the changelogs and seem confusing. However, MAME has preliminary support for the families of 286, 386/i386, 486/i486, and almost the entire range of Pentium CPUs. However, the color, sound, and graphics emulation for various CPUs and PCs based on the 286/386/486 architecture is acceptable. According to ProjectMESS, many IBM PC/AT 5170 family PCs running the 286 CPU have preliminary support. MAME 0.146u3 (Jul 2012) added CPU types for Pentium MMX, Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Pentium III, and Pentium 4.
A full x86 PC emulator with a focus on accuracy, that is typically used to develop and test operating systems and other low-level software. Its lack of proper timing emulation makes it not useful for anything pre-Pentium, and it is often too slow for newer systems to be playable. It is thus not recommended to use Bochs for gaming.
- IBM Personal Computer at TVTropes.
- Windows 8 build 7700 Info about the earliest Windows build to be unbootable in 86Box.
- Machine addition requests for 86Box
- https://www.courtlistener.com/opinion/423653/apple-computer-inc-a-california-corporation-v-franklin-computer/ Apple v. Franklin. (1983)
- https://books.google.com/books?id=Bwng8NJ5fesC&pg=PA56 Phoenix Says Its BIOS May Foil IBM's Lawsuits. PC Mag. (1984)
- Raising the Bar for IBM PC/XT Emulation: MartyPC
- Glorious_Cow's comment about MartyPC emulator.