Calculator emulators

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A calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics.

The first solid-state electronic calculator was created in the early 1960s. Pocket-sized devices became available in the 1970s when microprocessors were first developed.

Computer operating systems as far back as early Unix have included interactive calculator programs such as dc and hoc, and calculator functions are included in almost all personal digital assistant (PDA) type devices, the exceptions being a few dedicated address book and dictionary devices.

In addition to general purpose calculators, there are those designed for specific markets. For example, there are scientific calculators which include trigonometric and statistical calculations. Some calculators even have the ability to do computer algebra. Graphing calculators can be used to graph functions defined on the real line, or higher-dimensional Euclidean space. Basic and scientific calculators are cheaper than graphing models.

Even gaming is possible on some TI models, the TI-83 is an example and it can run Pong, Tetris and Doom. The newer model TI-Nspire is the most powerful and it can run 3D graphics and emulators.

Texas Instruments[edit]

TI-83 / TI-84 series[edit]

TI-SmartView is the official commercial emulator released by Texas Instruments, with a trial period of typically 15 days.

Using third-party emulators requires a copy of the operating system of the calculator. It could be officially downloaded from here, but a reason is required. It's unclear whether they will actually look into it -- "The OS of my calculator is damaged and requires recovery" could be a fairly reasonable one.

Generations of TI-83/84 hardware[edit]

There are actually 3 generations of TI-83/84 hardware, despite all of them being categorized under the same TI-83/84 model number. Notice that assembly programs written for one generation won't be able to run on a TI-83/84 with another generation of hardware.

  • Monochrome Z80: Featuring Zilog Z80 microprocessor, monochrome LCD, and AAA batteries. Including TI-83/84 Plus (Sliver Edition) and all their variations such as TI-83 Plus.fr, TI-84 Plus Pocket etc.
  • Color Z80: Featuring Zilog Z80 microprocessor but with color LCD and rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. There is only one model in this generation: TI-84 Plus C Silver Edition.
  • eZ80: Featuring Zilog eZ80 microprocessor with color LCD. Including TI-83 Premium CE (Python Edition), TI-82 Advanced Python Edition, and TI-84 CE (Python Edition).

Orion TI-84 Plus[edit]

Orion TI-84 Plus is a specifically modified TI-84 Plus released by Texas Instruments, in cooperation with Orbit Research, for people with vision impairment. This model has a speech module attached powered by its own ARM processor and reads out keys being pressed, calculation results, error messages, etc., and such voice messages could be redirected to an external Braille display.

None of the emulators could fully emulate this model yet. MAME lists this model as a "bootleg", with its basic functionalities works, but the speech module is left completely undumped and unemulated.

Name Platform(s) Version Monochrome Z80 Color Z80 eZ80 FLOSS Active Recommended
PC / x86
Wabbitemu[M 1] Windows macOS git
TilEm[M 1] Windows Linux macOS 2.0
CEmu Windows Linux macOS git
TI-SmartView Windows macOS 1.1.0
4.0.0.x
?
TI-SmartView CE Windows macOS 5.6
MAME Windows macOS Linux FreeBSD RiscOS AmigaOS 0.265 ~[M 2] ~[M 2] ~
Mobile / ARM
Wabbitemu[M 1] Android git
Calculator
TI-84 Mode TI-Nspire [M 3]
nspire-z80 TI-Nspire v0.12
Browser
jsTIfied Web ?
MaClasseTI.fr[M 4] Web ~
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Also supports emulation for other Zilog Z80 based calculators including TI-73/81/82/85/86.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Listed but doesn't work yet.
  3. Only available on non-CAS monochrome TI-Nspire models with TI-84 keypad attached.
  4. Very strict website security. Requires French residential IP address to access.

TI-89 series[edit]

TI-89 is a series of graphic calculators equipped with Motorola MC68000 microprocessors and computer algebra system called Advanced Math Software (AMS).

TI-89 could be considered as a miniaturized version of TI-92/Voyage200, as they share literally the exact same hardware and software architecture (that is also why some TI-89 emulators could also emulate TI-92/Voyage200), while TI-92/Voyage200 is huge in size thanks to their horizontal screen and QWERTY keyboard.

TI Flash Studio is the official tool for developing flash apps for TI-89/92 series calculators, which comes with an emulator. Unfortunately, this tool has been long abandoned and is no longer compatible with newer versions of Windows.

Using third-party emulators requires a copy of the operating system of the calculator. It could be officially downloaded from here, but a reason is required. It's unclear whether they will actually look into it -- "The OS of my calculator is damaged and requires recovery" could be a fairly reasonable one.

Name Platform(s) Version FLOSS Active Recommended
TiEmu[N 1] Windows Linux macOS 3.03
macOS
MAME Windows macOS Linux FreeBSD RiscOS AmigaOS[N 1] 0.265 ~
Virtual TI-89 Windows 9x 2.5 beta 5 ?
TI Flash Studio Windows 9x 1.1?
Mobile / ARM
Graph 89[N 1] Android 1.1.3c ?
Browser
TI-89 Online Simulator Web ?
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Also supports emulation for other Motorola 68000 based calculators including TI-92(II/+) and Voyage 200.

TI-Nspire series[edit]

TI-Nspire is the flagship series of Texas Instruments graphics calculators, equipped with QVGA monochrome/color LCDs, ARM-based processors, a mini laptop-style trackpad for controlling the mouse cursor, and a computer algebra system (depending on model) inherited and enhanced from TI-89's AMS.

TI-Nspire™ (CX) (CAS) Student Software and TI-Nspire™ (CX) (CAS) iOS app are the official commercial emulators released by Texas Instruments.

Using third-party emulators requires boot1, boot2, manuf, OS, and optionally diag dumps of the calculator. The OS could be downloaded officially from here, but boot1, boot2, and manuf have to be dumped from an actual calculator with PolyDumper.

Clickpad and Touchpad[edit]

Monochrome TI-Nspire comes with two different kinds of keyboards, depending on batch: Clickpad and Touchpad.

The major differences besides the appearances are:

  • Clickpad features a D-pad, while Touchpad comes with a mini laptop-style trackpad for controlling the mouse cursor.
  • The mouse cursor will only be available when it's absolutely needed (such as in grapher) with Clickpad, while it's always available and most of the elements in the operating system are clickable with Touchpad.
  • The D-pad on the Clickpad can register presses from all directions (despite being marked with four arrows), while the D-pad on Touchpad only registers four directions and a "click" (center) presses as there is physically only one button beneath the touchpad.
  • As fewer buttons are available, some functionalities that could be achieved with a single press on Clickpad have to be executed via sub-menus activated by specific buttons on Touchpad.

All emulators could only emulate Touchpad keyboard for now.

Name Platform(s) Version FLOSS Active Recommended
PC / x86
Firebird Windows macOS Linux git
TI-Nspire™ (CX) (CAS) Student Software Windows macOS 5.4
kArmTI Windows 1.81 ~
nspire_emu Windows 0.70
Mobile / ARM
Firebird Android iOS git
TI-Nspire App iOS 6.1.0[P 1]
TI-Nspire CAS App iOS 6.1.0[P 1]
Browser
TI-Nspire™ CX II Online Calculator[P 2] Web -
  1. 1.0 1.1 iPad only.
  2. Paid service.

Scientific and financial models[edit]

Most of the TI's scientific and financial calculators run on ASICs. Older MultiView calculators are based on T4X cpus while the newer MathPrint models are based on nx-u16/100 microcontrollers.

Unfortunately, there aren't community-driven, open-sourced emulators for TI's scientific and financial calculators yet. You can still get some of the official emulators at the following site:

TI software download

Notice that emulators for regional models, such as TI-30X Prio MathPrint (Germany model), may not be presented on the current page due to region settings. You'll have to switch to the correct region via the region switcher on the top-right corner of the webpage to download them.

Hewlett-Packard[edit]

monochrome graphic models[edit]

HP monochrome graphic calculators are a big family of products sharing similarities while each product has its unique features.

Older models run on in-house developed 4-bit "Saturn" processors. Newer models have an unusual practice that emulates the Saturn processor via an ARM processor, so technically speaking those calculator models are actually emulation boxes.

Name Platform(s) Version Emulates FLOSS Active Recommended
PC / x86
Emu48 Windows macOS Windows CE MS-DOS [Q 1] 1.66[Q 2] 38G, 39G, 40G, 48S, 48SX, 48G, 48G+, 48GX, 49G, 39g+, 39gs, 40gs, 48gII, 49g+, 50g
Emu28 Windows 1.37 18C, 28C
MAME Windows macOS Linux FreeBSD RiscOS AmigaOS 0.265 38G, 39G(✗), 48G, 48GX, 48G+, 48S, 48SX, 49G(✗), 49G+(✗)[Q 3] ~
Alucin AmigaOS 1.1 48G, 48S, 48GX, 48SX
NeXTStep EM48 NeXTSTEP 1999/12/14 48SX
saturn Linux Solaris IRIX 4.1.1.1 40G, 48GX, 49G
Mobile / ARM
Emu48 Android Windows Mobile 1.66 38G, 39G, 40G, 48S, 48SX, 48G, 48G+, 48GX, 49G, 39g+, 39gs, 40gs, 48gII, 49g+, 50g
Emu28 Android 1.37 18C, 28C
Droid48 Android 1.72 48G, 48S
iHP48 iOS 1.6.1 38G, 39G, 48G, 48GX, 48S, 49G, 49G+, 50g ?
i48 iOS 1.15 48GX ? ~
m48 [Q 4] iOS 2020/06/06 38G, 39G, 40G, 48SX, 48GX, 49G
Power48 PalmOS 1.0.0/1.5.1 48SX, 48GX, 49G ~
Consoles
PSPX48 PSP 1.0.5 48G ~
Calculators
Emu48 on ExistOS HP-39GII build 119 39G
  1. Mac OS X version is only available for PowerPC based Macs and there is no plan to port it to x86/ARM platform.
  2. Platforms besides Windows and Android are no longer maintained so their versions could be left way behind.
  3. Models with a ✗ means it's listed, but doesn't work.
  4. Has to be manually compiled and deployed.

HP Prime[edit]

HP Prime is HP's new flagship product of graphic calculators, featuring a multipoint color touchscreen, 400 MHz ARM processor, and a much-improved computer algebra system.

Name Platform(s) Version FLOSS Free To Use Active Recommended
PC / x86
HP Prime Virtual Calculator Emulator Windows 2.1.1.14596[P 1]
HP Prime Graphing Calculator App Windows 2.1.14582.0-Free
2.1.14582.70-Paid
~[P 2]
Mobile / ARM
HP Prime Graphing Calculator App iOS Android 2.1.14584-Free
2.1-Paid
~[P 3]
  1. Offical download portal is not available for individuals, only for signed up educators.
  2. Free version with limited functionalities available seperately.
  3. Free version with limited functionalities available seperately.

scientific and financial models[edit]

Just like monochrome graphic calculators, HP scientific and financial calculators are also a big family of products sharing similarities while each product has its unique features (besides the eps-6800 based HP SmartCalc series which are basically just ripoffs of Casio Natural-V.P.A.M. series calculators). Older models run on in-house developed 4-bit "Nut" processors. Some newer models have an unusual practice (especially for scientific calculators) that emulates the Nut processor via an ARM processor so technically speaking those calculator models are actually emulation boxes, while some other models use ASICs as their kernel.

Name Platform(s) Version Emulates FLOSS Active Recommended
PC / x86
Plus42 Windows Linux macOS Android iOS 1.1.10a HP-42S
Emu42 Windows 1.30[R 1] 10B, 14B, 17B, 17BII, 20S, 21S, 22S, 27S, 32S, 32SII, 42S, 19BII, 28S
Free42 Windows macOS Linux 3.1.8a 42S
HP SmartCalc 300s Emulator Windows 2012.11.29 Build 19029[R 2] SmartCalc 300s
WP-34s emulator Windows Linux macOS 3.3 WP-34s ?
HP 12C Emulator (Offical) Windows 2012/11/29 12C
HP 12C Emulator Windows 9x 1.0 12C
Mobile / ARM
Plus42 Android iOS 1.1.6 HP-42S
Emu42 Android Windows Mobile 1.30[R 1] 10B, 14B, 17B, 17BII, 20S, 21S, 22S, 27S, 32S, 32SII, 42S, 19BII, 28S
Free42 Android iOS Windows Mobile PalmOS 3.1.2a/b [R 3] 42S
awp34s Android 0.0.6 WP-34s
HP 12C Financial Calculator iOS Android 2.3.4 12C [R 4] ~
HP 12C Platinum Calculator iOS Android 2.3.4 12C Platinum Edition [R 5]
HP 15C Calculator iOS Android 2.3.4 15C [R 4] ~
Calculators
WP34S-4NS TI-Nspire git WP-34s ~ [R 6]
  1. 1.0 1.1 Platforms besides Windows and Android are no longer maintained so their versions could be left way behind.
  2. Offical download portal is not available for individuals, only for signed up educators.
  3. Windows Mobile and PalmOS versions are no longer maintained so their versions could be left way behind.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Not Free to use.
  5. Not Free to use. Just a reskin of regular 12C emulator, but 2 dollars more expensive.
  6. Despite the emulator itself being full-functional and bugs free, it's more for proof of concept and nostalgia as TI-Nspire, the host machine it runs on, is also a powerful calculator.

Casio[edit]

Most of the modern Casio graphic calculators run on 32-bit Hitachi SuperH-3/4 processors, while scientific, programmable, and financial models run on nx-u8/100 based ASICs. More retro ones come with all kinds of different hardware architectures, like VX-4 and PB-1000 that runs on Hitachi HD61700A processor, or fx-7000G that runs on NEC μPD1007G-008.

Community-driven, open-sourced emulators exist for some models, but unfortunately they are still in relatively primitive stages for now. You can still get official emulators at the following site:

Community-driven emulators require ROM files. As scientific and financial models have no programming and data transfer functionalities, the ROM has to be acquired either by extracting from official emulators, or copying the ROM into VRAM then analyzing the pixels on the display into binary via Hackstring which is a kind of arbitrary code execution.

Name Platform(s) Version Emulates FLOSS Active Recommended
PB-1000 Emulator Windows v48 PB-1000 ~
PB-2000C Emulator Windows v24 PB-2000C ~
fx-8000G Emulator Windows v09 fx-8000G ~
fx-7500G Emulator Windows v05 fx-7500G
CasioEmuNeo Windows git fx-ES, fx-ES PLUS, fx-EX, fx-CW ~ ~
CasioEmu Windows Linux git[R 1] fx-ES, fx-ES PLUS, fx-EX ~
Web-Calc-Emulator Web git fx-ES, fx-ES PLUS, fx-EX, fx-CW ~ ~
BeuCalc Java 0.4b3 fx-ES, fx-ES PLUS, fx-EX, fx-CW, fx-82 Solar II ? ~
MAME Windows macOS Linux FreeBSD RiscOS AmigaOS 0.265 PB-1000, PB-2000C, CFX-9850G
  1. Has to be manually compiled.

Numworks[edit]

Numworks is a graphic calculator equipped with 216 MHz ARMv7 processor, 8MB Flash ROM, 256 KB SRAM, QVGA color LCD, and an open-source operating system called Epsilon.

Upsilon is the fork of yet another fork of Epsilon called Omega and has been ported to other hardware besides Numworks.

Name Platform(s) Version FLOSS Active Recommended
PC / x86
Upsilon Windows Linux git
Mobile / ARM
Official emulator iOS Android 22.2.0 (iOS)
Upsilon Android git
Browser
Official emulator Web N/A
Official web-based offline emulator Web N/A
Upsilon Web git
Upsilon web-based offline emulator Web git
Calculator
Upsilon Prizm git [Q 1] ? ~
Consoles
Upsilon Nintendo 3DS git [Q 2] ?
  1. A pre-compiled version can be found here.
  2. Has to be manually compiled.

Sharp[edit]

Sharp's scientific and graphic calculators aren't as successful as TI or Casio when it comes to the education market, but many of them still present unique or interesting features.

Unfortunately, there aren't community-driven, open-sourced emulators for Sharp calculators yet. You can still get some of the official emulators at the following site:

Sharp calculator emulators

Canon[edit]

Canon currently offers emulators for only a limited number of scientific calculator models, and there are no community-driven or open-sourced emulators available yet.

You can find some Canon calculators emulators at the following links, but please note that a Serial Number is required to use them.

F-789SGA Emulator F-570SG Emulator F-715SG Emulator F-718SGA emulator F-960SG Emulator

Aurora[edit]

Aurora is a Chinese brand and calculators are part of their business. They offer emulators for their calculators for free on the following site:

Aurora’s calculator emulators

Notice the installation program of some emulators have bugs that will delete lnk files that aren't related to the emulator on the desktop, including operating system ones, such as "Computer".

This calculator brand doesn't seem to be very common and there aren't any community-driven or open-source emulators for it yet.

Elektronika[edit]

Elektronika calculators were made by the Soviet Union, including arithmetic (basic), scientific, and programming models. These calculators are rarely being used or even heard of outside the Soviet Union/Russia, but just like all Soviet Union products, they never lack fans.

Name Platform(s) Version Emulates FLOSS Active Recommended
PC / x86
Calculators 3000 Windows 6.2 5 models emulated: B3-34, MK-56, MK-54, MK-61, MC-1104, with other 21 models simulated
MK-90 Emulator Windows v17 MK-90
MK-85 Emulator Windows v49 MK-85
MK-87 Emulator Windows v06 MK-87
eMKatic Windows Linux FreeBSD 0.41 MK-152, MK-152M, MK-1152, MK-161 ?
Mobile / ARM
MK 61/54 Android 2.3 B3-34, MK-54, MK-56, MK-61, MK-52

Miscellaneous Calculators (1960 - 1989)[edit]

These Calculators have a higher chance of being emulated through MAME than getting their own emulator

Name MAME support ROMs Description
Adler 1210 None
Advance L24 None
Anita 1011 None
Anita MK 8 None
Anita MK VII None
Bohn Omnitrex 8 None
Burroughs C3300 None
Burroughs C5205 None
Busicom 141-PF Preliminary
Busicom LE-120A None
Canon Canola 1200 None
Canon Canola 130S None
Canon Palmtronic LE-80M None
Casio 121K None
Casio AL-1000 None
Casio AS-C None
Casio C-80 None
Casio CFX-400 None
Casio FX-7000G None
Casio J-100 None
Casio Metcon None
Casio TC-600 None
Check Tronic None
Commodore 500E None
Commodore C108 None
Compuchron Calculator Watch None
Concept 2000 Mr. Mus-i-cal None
Corvus CheckMaster None
DD Brock 880/1 None
Descal ASI-5 None
Elektronika B3-21 None
Elektronika B3-34 None
Elektronika B3-36 None
Elektronika MK-18M None
Elektronika MK-52 None
Elektronika MK-61 None
Elka 22 None
Facit 1123 None
Friden EC-130 None
Friden EC-132 None
HP-28 None
HP-41CX None
HP-9100A None
HP-9100B None
Hitachi KK 521 None
Hitachi KK 562A None
IME 26 None
IME 84 None
IME 84RC None
IME 86 None
Iskra 123 None
Kessel 7-Melody Calculator None
Kosmos 1 None
Kosmos Astro None
Mathatronics Mathatron None
Monroe Epic 3000 None
NCR 18-16 None
Olivetti Programma 101 None
Olympia CD200 None
Olympia CD602 None
Omron 60 None
Pulsar Calculator 3822-2 None
Remington-Rand EDC-III None
Ricoh Ricomac 1200 None
Ricoh/Oi Electric Aleph-Zero None
Rockwell 10R Good
Rockwell 12R Good
Rockwell 24K Good
Rockwell 30R Good
Rockwell 920 None
Royal IC-130 None
SCM Cogito 240-SR None
SCM Marchant I None
Sanyo ICC-1122 None
Sanyo ICC-805 None
Sanyo ICC-82D None
Sanyo Scientific None
Sharp Compet 20 None
Sharp Compet CS-10A None
Sharp EL-8 None
Sharp EL-803 None
Sharp QT-8D None
Sinclair Cambridge None
Sinclair Enterprise None
Sinclair Executive None
Sinclair Oxford None
Sinclair President None
Sinclair Scientific None
Sinclair Sovereign None
Singer Friden EC1114 None
Sony ICC-400W None
Sony ICC-500W None
Sporting Life Super Settler None
Sporting Life Super Settler MK II None
Summit 3114 None
Takara Kaltor None
Teal TL-2M None
Tektronix Model 31 None
Toshiba BC-1411 Toscal None
Toshiba BC-1623G None
Uchida Yoko USAC 10B None
Victor 1400 series None
Victor 3900 None
Wang 360E None
Wang 362E None
Wang 720C None
Wang LOCI-2 None
Wyle Laboratories WS-01 None

Calculator games[edit]

Name Year Developer / Distributor MAME support ROMs Emulators / Description
囲碁 Go (TG-2) 1984 Casio None No
Baseball (BB-9) 1982 Casio None No
Blackjack Calculator Unknown Toshiba None No
Block Burster (CG-260) 1983 Casio None No
Boxing 1982 Casio None No
Champion Derby 2 (KG-200) 1983 Casio None No
Chase-N-Counter 1982 GCE None No
Game Calculator (MG-880) 1980 Casio None No
Grabman (GM-116) 1982 Texet None No
Home Sweet Home 1982 Ludotronic None No
MG-775 / MG-885 1981 Casio None No
Miracle Pinball (CG-250) 1983 Casio None No
Reversi (CG-8) 1983 Casio None No
Pachinko (PG-200) 198? Casio None No
Saturn I 198? Armitron None No
Shuttle Voyage 1983 Tronica Good No
Invader (SL-880) 2018 Casio None No Official modern remake of the MG-880.
Soccer (SG-12) 1984 Casio None No
Space-N-Counter 1982 GCE None No
Three Games (MG-777) 1981 Casio None No
Turbo Drive (MG-200) 198? Casio None No
Unisonic 21 Blackjack 1977 Unisonic None No
Videomaster Enterprise 1979 Waddingtons None No
Wondertopia 1981 - 1982 Sharp None No
Work Challenge Unknown McDonalds None No

See also[edit]

External links[edit]